Chongqing Dog - History
The 21st Century is the time when most of the serious breeders realised that a huge part of popular dog breeds had numerous health issues and inherited genetic problems. Popularity of pet ownership and show rings brought delight to lots of people worldwide, but at the same time mass-production and inbreeding of popular breeds did more bad things to the dog breeds itself. I have lived with dogs almost my whole life and when I graduated from University many years ago, the dogs became my profession and passion . I have bred, raised and trained Cane Corso for working and show , always having for goal to improve the next generation. I have experience with dogs under FCI recognition , selection , standardisation and Top Dogs at International Dog Shows.
With many breeds today it is simply impossible to correct the inherited problems. Sadly over the last few decades with the craze of show breeding, for looks, coat colour and exaggerated features trying to make the dogs stand out against their competitors, sadly the breeds have lost all the characteristics, athleticism and intelligence it was once revered for. And that is how my journey started a couple of years ago. Thanks to Google and Facebook, it is easy to find lots of useful information for those willing to learn. I was searching for a purebred, still working and functional breed that was never popular, whose genetics are untouched and without inherited health issues…without the need to be cropped or docked…
…and I found it in the Chongqing Dog, who was well hidden from the world for a long time. The Chongqing Dog is named for Chongqing City, which is one of the most important cities in the whole of China. In part, this is because it is an inland port with considerable manufacturing capabilities. However, it should also be noted that Chongqing has a fair amount of historical significance, with examples ranging from the coronation that resulted in it receiving its current name meaning “Double Celebration” to its status as Chiang Kai-shek’s provisional capital during the Second World War.
As soon as I saw their appearance and after I read all about the breed, I knew it , I had to have it one day, it was an obsession and my dream … so I decide, and flew to China @ #ChongqingCity .
The Trip was well documented by Modern Molosser .
and … It was love at first sight !
BOMBSHELL the Chinese Chongqing Dog was absolutely unknown even in other parts of China in spite of the fact that this is not a new breed. Incredible!
Bamboo forest without end, huge Metropolis, Mega City, Chongqing is a city of hills, rivers and skyscrapers… the municipality is huge, with over 31 million people and growing… waooo ! China is huge! Amazing !!!
I started correspondence with Xiang Baychuan , Mathematic teacher and Top expert in Chongqing Dog world, and Wang Peng the owner of #ConservationCenter , today the Conservation Center is renamed Hongya Cave Kennel. The Conservation Center was involved in Hybrid puppy mill style production & organised dog fighting … once this was outed in Europe they renamed the Kennel to Hongya Cave Kennel.
I personally visited many kennels , including the Conservation Center, Preservation Center, and many other small local breeders across the Sichuan Province from #Chengdu to #ChongqingCity , including many rural traditional kennels located deep inside the bamboo forest where I found one of the nicest hidden CQ dogs hidden from the urban world . Far hidden from the Big City, Imet with many local native farmers with fantastic ancient wild Molosser dogs, here I realised that many modern CQs have stayed the same since empire Han Dynasty times. They remained the same shape as the ancient pottery dogs seen in the museums . My special thanks go to Xiang Baychuan for all the time he spent to answer all of my questions and for introducing me to this extraordinary, wild, mystic dog breed. Above all, I am grateful for the magnificent opportunity to purchase 12 breeding dogs of the finest specimens of the breed directly from the best breeder…the purest ancient Chinese Bulldog. I am proud to be a part of the program for the protection and preservation of this unusual and unique dog breed.
In the meantime, my kennel became part of history quite by accident…
重庆犬 #chongqingdog is one of the rarest and oldest dog breeds in the world today and there are only a few breeders outside of China privileged to live and learn from this ancient breed.
I was blessed, I had the privilege of being one of the first European dog lover who learned from the greatest experts in China .I must say I was a little suspicious of articles about this breed, none written by western dog experts….it seemed a perfect dog or it could have been just a good marketing ploy for puppy sales….
The Chongqing dog (pronounced chong-ching) is an ancient and unique breed, with only an estimated 200 Chongqing Dogs ( 2012 ) left in the world , this makes this breed even rarer than the Chinese Giant Panda and urgent assistance is required to save this breed from extinction. The breed is an ancient Bulldogge type with archeological excavations showing it is at least 2300 years old. The ancestry of the CQ dog remained a mystery until Bamboo Tail Kennel obtained DNA tests for the first time ever. According to the DNA testing, we now know t is considered one of China’s oldest breeds with a history that traces over 2000 years, older than the Shar Pei or Chow Chow . The most problematic thing is the fact that until recently, there was almost absolutely no interest in canine historical research in China except for the last 7 – 10 years. This lack of historical evidence makes it very hard to make any definitive statements on the history of the Chinese Chongqing Dog or any of China’s breeds for that matter.
This makes anything said about the Chinese Chongqing Dog’s history prior to the 1980’s little more than speculation, although enough evidence does exist to make some general statements. What is clear is that the Chinese Chongqing Dog was developed in China many centuries ago, and that it has always been associated with Chongqing City and the Sichuan valley . In 2019 Bamboo Tail Kennel for first time ever, published the HAPLOGROUP and HAPLOTYPE of modern CQ and we prove the real origin of ancient Chongqing Dog . DNA analysis indicates that all breeds today stem from domestication of the gray wolf in China around 16,300 years ago, which was right around the same time as the domestication of wild rice. So it could be that wolves were domesticated at the same time humans began to settle down into agrarian societies and it’s tempting to see a connection there. It is unclear how the first dog was introduced to China and there are three competing theories. Some claim that the dog was first domesticated in China and all evidence today goes in this direction, DNA tests shows all dogs are the descendants of a small population of Chinese wolves. But others still claim that the dog was first domesticated in Tibet, or the Middle East and subsequently spread to China through trade and military conquest, which is also plausible theory . Still others believe the dog was domesticated simultaneously in China and another location in Asia and the two populations eventually merged. Regardless, the dog was present in China for as long as the Chinese civilization has existed. Dogs were definitely kept by the first Chinese farmers and almost certainly by their nomadic hunter-gatherer ancestors. The dog, along with the pig, were the earliest animals domesticated in China. Remains of both animals have been found in the oldest Neolithic settlements of the Yangshao (circa 4000 B.C.) and Hemudu (circa 5000 B.C.) cultures. Canine remains similar to the Dingo have been found in some early graves excavated in northern China.
The first Chinese dogs probably served the same roles as their counterparts elsewhere in the ancient world, as guardians, hunting aides, companions, and sources of food and hides. It is unclear what these first Chinese dogs looked like, but most experts agree that they were virtually identical in appearance and temperament to a number of primitive breeds found throughout the world including the Dingo of Australia, New Guinea Singing Dog of Papua New Guinea, and the Carolina Dog of the United States. In fact, dogs which could be classified as Dingoes are still found throughout Southern China. These early dogs were probably descended from the smaller, less aggressive wolves, golden jackals and Dhole of southern Asia and were best adapted to life in tropical and subtropical climates. In order to adapt to life in the frigid climates found in mountainous regions like Northern China, the first Chinese dogs were almost certainly crossed with the larger, more-heavily furred wolves found in those regions like the Tibetan Mastiff. The resulting cross-bred dogs are known in the West as Spitzen. Today we know Dingoes originated in China 18,000 years ago. The dingo came to Australia via southern China, and much earlier than previously thought, according to new research. Published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the study also debunks the previously held belief South Chinese dingoes traveled to Australia via Taiwan and the Philippines, making several sea crossing. Based on the DNA of living wolves, wild dogs, and dingoes, there’s growing agreement that the animals originated in China—before spreading to Taiwan and to Southeast Asia. Further evidence from mitochondrial DNA suggests that the wild dogs arrived on the Australian continent around 5,000 years ago from China. The work appears in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The dingo is also found throughout Southeast Asia in natural forests in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Burma, Thailand and southern China. We do know that the indigenous dogs of China and the ancient breeds from South China have been identified as the most basal lineages relating to gray wolves. These include breeds such as Chuandong Hound, Akita , Shar Pei, Thai Ridgeback , Shiba Inu , Chow Chow, Chongqing Dog and Tibetan terrier.
At a somewhat later date, the Tibetan people developed two distinct types of dogs, probably as a result of crossing the early dogs with Tibetan wolves. One was a very large and powerful guarding breed which became known as the Tibetan Mastiff. The other was a small and affectionate companion animal similar to today’s Pug. Both types were brachycephalic, meaning that they had short muzzles, pushed-in faces, and possessed wrinkled faces. Trade and conquest eventually introduced both breeds to China where they became well-established. These four types of dogs, primitive Dingo-like dogs, Spitz-type dogs, Mastiff-type dogs, and Pug-like companion breeds, were regularly crossed resulting in all of today’s Chinese breeds. The Chongqing Dog, Shar-Pei, Chuandong Hound, Chow Chow and Thai Ridgeback are the only four known dog breeds that share the blue/black tongue trait and probably all are descendants of the ancient Chow dog, evolved separately through centuries under different circumstances, cross breedings, geographic areas, climate, etc. There is a second possibility that the ancient Chow, whose existence dates back to at least 1100 B.C. according to ancient chronicles describing a dog “heavily built with harsh, bristly hair, absolutely straight back legs and blue tongues“, and is the ancestor of the Han Dog. So what we know today about Tangs, the origins of the Tang Dog are lost in the mists of time. Indeed recent research from the Institute of Zoology in Kunming say the Tang Dog might be the world’s first domestic dog – having evolved from the grey wolf some 33,000 years ago in southern China. Tangs got their name from the Tang Dynasty (7th Century A.D.) when China’s trading with the rest of the world began to surge. During the Tang Dynasty, it is reported that one Chinese emperor kept something like 2500 of these “Chow Dogs”
as hunting and sporting animals to accompany his ten thousand soldiers. That’s when owners started to distinguish the dogs they had at home were uniquely Chinese breeds. As a side note, the Chinese word for a Chinatown is ‘Tang People’s Street’, because that was the period of history when many Chinese began to appear in other countries. China’s first emperor Qin Shi Huangdi is said to have owned one. China was frequently invaded by the Mongolians tribes on its Northern borders. These tribes, the Tartars and Mongols, were accompanied by their “war dogs. At that time the word “Mastiff” was used indicating a dog of great size, strength and hunting ability. The term “Mastiff” was used indiscriminately by writers and translators irrespective of the breed of dog. The
Tarter “war dogs“ were described as of “lion-like” appearance, large, powerful and distinguished black tongues. Records show that the Emperor Wu Wang (1112-1116 B.C.) received a tribute from the enemy of a great number of their dogs described as “of great strength” with plenty of hair and mostly red in color, black tongues …. this was almost a thousand years before the Han Dynasty and those ancient Chow dogs are possibly ancestors of the Han dog and with it, also the ancestors of modern #Chongqingdog , #Chuandonghound ,Chow Chow Thai Ridgeback and Shar-Pei . The above mentioned may be facts, folklore or myth but it is safe to say that these conjectures may never be positively known. Much of the potential history was lost as Emperor Yuan, during the Mongol Dynasty (1260 ~ 1368) destroyed 140,000 ancient books rather than let them fall into unworthy hands at the anticipation of his certain death.
Very Interesting fact about Tibet mastiff : The investigated Tibetan Dogs are on the haplotype 44 and 45 of the oldest Domestication group A and have remained relatively unaffected by later influences on the mitochondrial DNA. In her society can be found on the haplotypes 44 and 45 also some stray dogs from the regions of Sichuan (former historical Tibet )and Guangxi (below Himalayas and Inner Mongolia). The influence of the Sichuan street dogs on the Tibetan dog becomes clearly visible. Modern CQd is probably Missing Link of today’s Western Molosser. Fast forward some 14,000 years and we come to this clay statue of a dog in the Art Institute of Chicago from the Chinese Han Dynasty, roughly 200 BC to AD 200. Pottery dog is typical of many funerary figurines of the Han Dynasty. The broad face, short muzzle, and powerful build might lead us to identify the breed as the modern Molosser Chongqing Dog. Highly likely 2000 years of evolution made those breeds to look a bit different from each other, and more or less different from the ancient Han Dog, but still quite possible that they share the same roots and genes. At some point, the Chinese developed a unique type of dog, probably by heavily crossing all five known ancestral types. This type was typified by loose, wrinkly skin, medium size, a curled tail, a low-set stocky body, and a blue-black tongue. Although it is unclear, these blue-black tongued dogs were almost certainly multipurpose dogs, used for hunting, property guarding, and sources of food.
These dogs were very frequently depicted in Chinese artwork, especially statues, and are known as Han Molosser Dogs due to their popularity during that time. These pieces show a dog that is remarkably similar, absolutely identical, to the modern day Chongqing Dog. They are shaped by the forces of nature during centuries, natural selection has successfully eliminated undesirable traits in the breed. All ancient artifacts show that the CQ dog originated in the isolated Sichuan Province of Southwest China an estimated 2300 years ago. For centuries it has stood guard over the peasant homes in the remote, isolated villages of East Sichuan. The Sichuan villagers hardly ever visited the urban centres of the country. Had they wished to do so, the journey would have taken them many days. This area was secluded from others, with poor transportation methods, this CQ dog breed has remained pure with little to no crossbreeding, mostly with many local types of Shar Pei and Chuandong Hound, depending on the region and purpose of use. It is fantastic that the breed is preserved in its natural form and looks practically identical to the Molosser potteries from the Han Dynasty. It is known that in the Han court there were kept hundreds of dogs, different breeds, each for its own purpose. They had small companion dogs, they had hunting dogs and strong guard dogs, but they kept also dogs breed for food. Liu Bang, founder of Han Dynasty, was once a farmer before he became an Emperor at the time of the Han Dynasty which is known as time of prosperity in China. Enforcement of efficient rules in economy and encouraged agriculture was unique in the world at that time. China had lots of aristocracy back then and all of the farmers had good and pleasant life. They all had a passion for dogs which were mostly used for hunting and guarding, but some of the aristocracy kept Han dogs as status symbol. Unfortunately with the arrival of the Ming Dynasty and hard poverty, bad times came upon all dog breeds, including the ancient Han dogs. The number of dogs decreased rapidly and whole breeds were almost lost. Today it is quite possible that descendants of the ancient molosser Han dog are those known today as the #bambooCQdog .There is substantial dispute among fanciers of all three breeds as to which of those five breeds the Han Dog represents, but the full truth will probably forever remain a mystery, modern DNA test pointing Chuandong Hound and the Chongqing Dog as most related to grey wolf. I’m of the opinion, the Han Dog exhibits characteristic features of all five modern dogs and probably actually represents a common shared ancestor which was subsequently developed into a number of new breeds. The origin of this breed is definitely Chongqing City and mountains around the big City, where most of the dog pottery was found. As a result, the CQ dog has remained largely undiluted by other unrelated dogs, making it one of the purest wild Molosser dogs in the world.
Some Chongqing Dogs were crossed with other varieties, which may have introduced new colors into the breed such as black, Chongqing dog can be black or red, while the Chuandong Hound is only red. Some CQd and Chuandong Hounds have spotted tongues whereas others can have solid blue/black tongues much like the Chow Chow. Chinese Ancient Molosser dog existence was noticed after archeologists found sculptures of an unknown short muzzle molosser dog in an ancient tomb from the time of Han Dynasty, Chongqing City area in 1986. A few researchers noticed that the local dogs of the region were very different than other Chinese breeds and were nearly identical to statues of molosser Han Dogs being short muzzled, powerful, medium sized molosser. This proving the love of this breed even back some 2000 years ago. Some of them served the purpose of being protector of Gods to accompany them in the tomb of the noble family in spirit. In the early 90’s of the last century, Chinese archeologists studying archeological findings estimated the breed’s history to go back 1800 – 2300 years, to the Han Dynasty (206 B.C. – 220 A.D.). This conclusion was reached by numerous experts after considering not only history, but also the geography of the Chongqing area in ancient times. They confirmed the existence of the ancient dog breed with short muzzle, named #Chongqingdog . Since then, more of the tombs from the same era were discovered and more of the dog sculptures of that same type of dog were found. Archaeologists found a huge Western Han Dynasty’s graveyard in Chongqing on 20th April, 2000. A large number of dog pottery statues of their kind were found. This ancient breed was also used for hunting in the mountain area of East Sichuan and all pottery sculpture show existence of modern #Chuandonghound -a hunting dog with a longer muzzle. Both breeds from Sichuan valley are similar but definitely two distinct breeds despite the similarity both breeds have different origins according to DNA analysis. It might be noted that a Chow Chow enthusiast claim that those dog-figurines are Chows, Shar-pei owners claim they are representative of their breed, so the fact of the matter is the exact history of those chinese native breeds is at best speculation and theory. The fact is, short muzzled dog can be only a kind of molosser and so the Chongqing Dog. There are lots of assumptions from all sides, but just one look at those figurines and it is clear that the CQd visually is most similar to the ancient Molosser Han pottery dog. Identical head, muzzle, ears like spoons, proportion, guarding position… only the tail of modern CQd is different in that it is kept straight, not curved. However,recently more and more short muzzle pottery dogs with straight tails are emerging. The tail is one of the things which makes the CQ dog so unique. There is not any other kind of dog in the world who has this distinctdestinct tail along with its unique fur, character and ancient bluish/black tongue making the Chongqing Dog one of a kind. Burial of those dog figurines along with the dead was a regular occurrence at that time since they believed that those guard dogs will keep away the evil spirits in the afterlife. Those dogs played a great part in the life and death of the Han people. The Han Dynasty was the second dynasty of China, it lasted for two centuries and is considered as the golden era in Chinese history, an age of economic prosperity. Even so, for such a large empire as the Han Empire, there was always wars for expanding or defending the empire. Borders were always in danger and under attack from many tribes, so the necessity of the strong “war dogs“ and fearless guardians was obvious. There is no doubt that they had a large number of them and that Han dogs were highly regarded back then. Being so respected, the breed found its way through history by serving people and ensured its existence most likely through all five modern time of the ancient breeds now known as Thai Ridgeback ,Chow Chow, Shar Pei, Chuandong Hound and Chongqing Dog. The fact is -all the ancient HAN dog pottery from the Chongqing area and Sichuan valley point to the birthplace and best preserved ancient Chinese wild Molosser dogs and hounds. The main difference between the Chongqing Dog and Chuandong Hound is domestication. The Chuandong Hound is not completely domesticated and adapted to life with us humans, it’s a hound with high activity level and therefore it behaves in a much more original way than many other breeds. It’s mostly independent and undomesticated because of its isolated nature which has led to little human interaction. The communication of the Chuandong Hound is much finer with enormous hunting instincts and is more diverse and differentiated. The Chuandong Hound shouldn’t stay alone with children. In times past, Chuandong Hound and Chongqing Dog was only known in the Sichuan area. In more recent times, this breed is becoming more common in the Chinaalthough both breeds are still rare but not at all as rare as Chongqing Dog the molosser type, bred only by a few hardcore CQd Breeder in the City of Chongqing. The Chongqing Dog has a Molosser head with a short muzzle which indicates of modern domestication. Tame dogs have a shorter muzzle and neural crest cells are much smaller then in primitivewild dog breeds. Wilhelm His Sir discovered when neural crest cells in the embryonic stage start growing they produce adrenaline. Wildprimitive dogs behave nervously because of the high levels of adrenaline. Domestic dogs are more friendly and relaxed, why? Simple-because the level of adrenaline is very low . Typical Domestication Syndrome are tame, floppy ears, short muzzle and spotted??? fur. Many bureaucratic dog experts describe the Chongqing Dog exactly the same as Chuandong Hound with the same behavior. They use to say its an ancient dog with long muzzle, its a hunting dog, it is not friendly to children, it’s aggressive to other dogs. This may describe the Chaundong Hound but it, in no way, describes the Chongqing Dog . I has taken me years to contact different websites around the world to change the information about the Chongqing Dog, even today we have hundreds of online pictures of the Chuandong Hound incorrectly labeled as the Chongqing Dog with totally wrong description of Temperament,character and appearance. Most of the false information its all thanks to Conservation Center puppy mill & thousands Hybrid CQd, and Tim Taylor who has never owned a single CQ dog , not even a Hybrid. Thanks to CKU , Franki Leung and Ms. Grace Wang – the Chongqing Dog has been saved.
So we have ancient evidence of both Chinese native dogs from Sichuan province – the Chongqing Dog as a molosser guard dog with a shorter muzzle, smaller in stature with a squarer body, shorter ears and shorter tail , when compared to the Chuandong Hound- a hunting dog with a longer muzzle, taller with longer legs, a longer body, taller ears and longer tail. Both breeds are colored in red,from dark red to light red. The Chongqing Dog can be also be solid black. In comparison to the Chow Chow, Shar Pei and Thai Ridgeback with colors of red, fawn, blue, chestnut, and black in many variations. This red coat color indicates the DNA testing of CQd and Chuandong Hound reflects a closer relation to wild dogs and …both breeds are preserved very similar to ancient dog ceramic pottery – isn’t it amazing?
Until 1997, the City of Chongqing and its immediate surroundings were part of the ancient Chinese province of East Sichuan which has long served as Tibet’s eastern border. In 1997, the Chinese government decided the East Sichuan Province had become too populous to serve as a single province. The city of Chongqing and surrounding parts of Eastern Sichuan were separated to form a new province, Chongqing. Sichuan is famous for its mountainous terrain, unique culture and cuisine, speech which is either a unique dialect or language into itself depending on which expert is asked. A unique dog breed developed around Chongqing, this breed was different from all other Chinese dogs for a number of reasons including possessing a straight, hairless tail known in China as a #bambootail .The term bamboo is used to describe this dog tail because , resembles emerging bamboo… it is straight, thick at the base then tapering and hairless. Each valley and municipality had a unique name for the breed, such as Bamboo Ratter, Mountain Dog. The Chinese Chongqing dog has probably been called dozens of different names throughout the centuries. Chinese dog breeders were much less involved than their European counterparts. The Chongqing dog was not deliberately bred, although a fair amount of indirect selection was conducted (only those dogs which were most favored were kept alive to breed). This meant that most of the Chinese Chongqing dog’s development was the result of natural pressures, relative isolation and also that the breed was considerably less inbred. The CQ dog was used as a guard dog, protecting its home and family from both wild beasts and ill-intentioned humans. The breed also served as a pet for local families, providing companionship and affection. The CQ dog became very well-known around the city of Chongqing and throughout Sichuan valley. However, the breed remained essentially unknown outside of its homeland, even in the rest of China . Basically the breed remained essentially unchanged in its homeland for centuries, continuing to serve as a multipurpose working dog. The introduction of modern technology and farming methods in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries led to a massive population boom, and by the middle of the 20th Century Sichuan province was home to a massive population which at one point exceeded 100 million people. 100 million people require a large amount of agricultural land to feed them, and most of Sichuan’s remaining wild areas were cleared to make room for farming. This left little land for the Chongqing Dog to hunt on and the breed began to be kept primarily as a guard dog and companion. After a protracted and bloody civil war which was interrupted by World War II, the Communist rebels under the leadership of Mao Zedong took control of mainland China. Official Communist believed companion dogs were the useless playthings of the rich and that keeping pets was an unnecessary strain on resources. The keeping of pet dogs was outlawed throughout China and untold millions of dogs were deliberately killed. Pet dogs essentially disappeared from Chinese cities and vast areas of the countryside. This purge resulted in the total and complete extinction of most Chinese breeds. Most Chinese dogs which managed to survive were those such as the Chow Chow and Pekingese which had already become established in the West prior to the purge or those from Tibet such as the Tibetan Mastiff which were specially protected in the autonomous region. It is believed that only two ancient breeds managed to survive on mainland China. One was the Shar Pei, which was saved by breeders in Hong Kong, which was actually a British territory until 1999. The other was the CQ dog. The Chongqing Dog was saved from extinction by a combination of two factors. The first was that it was primarily found in a remote mountainous region where governmental control was comparatively weak. The other was that it was kept as a working dog and was therefore exempt from the worst excesses of the slaughter. A small number of owners in remote Sichuan Valleys continued to breed these ancient animals, although they were kept essentially entirely as working dogs. By the late 1980’s, Mao Zedong had died and China’s new leadership had slightly different ideologies. China began to initiate a number of reforms designed to produce a more effective and free-market economy. The keeping of pet dogs was once again allowed after more than 30 years of being banned. The Chinese also began to conduct more research into their nation’s historical past. Numerous statues of Han dogs were discovered in archaeological digs throughout Sichuan confirming the unique beauty of ancient Chongqing Dogs and Chuandong Hounds.
The Chongqing Dog is a true survivor who proved its multiple character and fantastic adaption to numerous different tasks serving man during 20 centuries in China. Their unique look, bamboo tail, black/bluish solid or spotted tongues and spectacular character will attract lots of attention worldwide, not just in its homeland.
So ,even Today they say that the Chongqing dog is so rare that it is even rarer than the Panda bears.
Because of no influence from the outside world, this breed formed its unique appearance and temperament due to a long term of natural evolution that guaranteed ancient genetic purity of the breed by trusted breeders . Different from many western breeds which are known to be“man-made” in more recent history, the CQ dog has ancient roots and it is naturally occuring breed.
Make no mistake – this dog will attract a lot of attention! It has a unique appearance – with it’s bold physique, rich, deep red colour, sparse coat, erect ears and spotted tongue – there is no other dog out there like it!
Today, the Chongqing dog is considered to be one of the rarest breeds on earth. It’s worth noting that the CQd are currently listed as one of the most expensive dog breeds in the world. The breed’s total global population is so low that it is thought that there are fewer purebred Chinese Chongqing Dogs on earth than there are Giant Pandas, another creature that has only survived until the present day by hiding deep in the Mountains and Bamboo forest of Sichuan valley. There are currently in 2019 under 3000 purebred Chinese Chongqing Dogs remaining, the vast majority of which are owned by a small number of breeders and fanciers in the City of Chongqing and its suburbs. Today, the genuine Chongqing dog has become very rare and precious, they are mainly kept by a few private breeders or as pets mostly #ChongqingCity and #Chengdu.
In the last decade, the Chongqing Dog fanciers and breeders have been putting together lots of effort to promote the breed in the whole of China, to warn people and government about this ancient and domestic breed which needs the attention and help of the nation.
To keep them in their functional form is the primary goal. Only the best animals were kept and used as brood stock. Farmers didn’t know that they had such a valuable breed in their possession. Even today many of the locals are not even aware of their existence. During that period, it is quite fortunate that this breed survived, only their multifunctional character saved them from being completely lost from us today. When pet-ownership was allowed at the end of 80’s, some of the Chongqing Dogs spread from the farms to the urban areas mainly City of #Chongqing, and the breed was pointed to a better future. So pet ownership was allowed in the 1980’s and families moving from rural areas into Chongqing City took their dogs with them as pets in a few generations these dogs had evolved to cope better with city living in a more placid stockier dog with a different head type to the original hunting hound. It was birth time and birth-hour of crossbreed between Chuandong hound and Chongqing dog .
Until the last 30 years, the Chongqing Dog was kept almost exclusively as a working dog, especially during the period which lasted from 1949 until the late 1980’s. Prior to the 1950’s, the breed’s primary role was as a guarding dog, but very few breed members are still used for that purpose today. The restoration of the breed was undertaken successfully in the 70’s. They become a popular utility dog in Chongqing City. By the early 1990’s, pet ownership had become very popular in Chinese cities such as Chongqing. Because the only source of dogs at the time was the countryside, many dogs were brought in from rural regions. The Chongqing Dog became increasingly popular in the city of Chongqing and breed numbers began to grow for the first time in decades. The breed was named as the Chongqing Dog in the year 2000, by the Chongqing Pet Association to avoid confusion because of the many names of the breed used in different areas such as Bamboo Ratter or Mountain dog. The Chongqing Dog received its name because it is most common in Chongqing. The Chuandong Hounds’ origin was in the Valley of East Sichuan and as well in new recent times in Chongqing City. In the year 2001 the Chongqing Dog Promotional Comitee made its first website in Chinese and English and the breed was presented to the rest of the world for the first time ever as the molosser dog… the Chongqing Dog. At this time, the very first Breed Standard was written with help of the experts from the Western World. With their dedicated work for preservation and presentation of this ancient, rare , exotic and tropical breed, the Chongqing Dog exist today.
The breed was beginning to show signs of recovery until disaster struck once again. In 2003, a S.A.R.S. outbreak spread throughout China and occured in the Chongqing area andmany of the Chongqing Dogs were killed along with other local dogs and other animals in order to combat the deadly disease. The Chinese government killed most of Chongqing’s canine population, including the majority of Chinese Chongqing Dogs. By the end of the S.A.R.S. epidemic the number of Chongqing Dogs had reduced from an estimated 9000-15000 to a mere 200 or so. The Chuandong Hound population was always up to 300,000. So the #Chuandonghound was absolutely never endangered like the CQ dog.
This most recent purge almost resulted in the breed’s extinction. Although breed numbers remain very low, the future of the Chinese Chongqing Dog is looking brighter. In addition to increased interest around the world, there is substantial and growing interest in the breed throughout China. This growing interest closely corresponds to a growing Chinese interest in native breeds. Chinese dog owners covet purebred Chinese breeds as symbols of national and cultural pride. Chinese Chongqing Dog Breeding Centre (CCDBC) was founded in the year 2006 in #Beijing. They collected a solid number of adult Molosser dogs and puppies from the Chongqing area and started their breeding program for the preservation of the breed. The breed was not known as much in other parts of China, but that is changing, even local breeder start to understand difference of Molosser and Hunting dogs at this point and in the near future this breed will be a matter of prestige for their nation and the theme for lots of debates. There are many video from CCDBC on YouTube made by owner Zhou Ming-Sheng. Unfortunately at the end of 2008, winter storms killed all CCDBC Kennel dogs . It was a record-breaking cold winter. A huge setback for the ancient Chinese Chongqing dog, the best selected CQ dogs from Chongqing area died in one single night .
The first Chongqing puppies were exported to Canada, Croatia, Russia and Austria not so long ago. Unfortunately the first Chongqing dogs in Europe, Canada, Russia and the USA were/are Hybrids of Chuandong Hound and Chongqing Dog , many breeders in Europe and done in the USA believe deeply Chuandong Hound is the ancient bulldog, but logically the Chuandong Hound is Pariahound with a scissor bite and for sure not a Molosser type dog … the Chuandong Hound is an ancient dog with origins of wild south Chinese Dingo kind of dogs, Chuandong Hounds can be aggressive like the Thai Ridgeback and behave similar to Shar Pei (horse coat) and they tend to be the most active and wild. The Chongqing Dogs’ origin are ancestors of the Tibetan Mastiff, Chow Chow, Chongqing Dogs behave more friendly, the size is smaller and they are aren’t as long as Chuandong Hound, the proportions are different and their purpose and utility are also different. The Chongqing Dog a kind of Bulldog with an undershot bite .
A similar situation happened to the Shar Pei in 1991 when around 200 SharPei were smuggled into the USA. Most of these dogs in the USA were hybrid (WIKIPEDIA ).
In 2016, I personally had the entire population in Europe and Russia registered on behalf of CCDC and gained incredible experience about size, proportion, weight, coat type, muzzle and head type and YES,I learned about the differences of the hybrid type and really rare Molosser CQd which are in great demand and very expensive. I exchange all of my information with top Chinese experts from Chongqing, we compared our CQd with the best examples in China, we talk for hours and since then I have become a Chongqing Dog whisperer …there was no way back…I was deeply in love … and affected for life . In July 2016 CKU set up the Native breeds conservation club, the Chongqing Dog and Chuandong Hound was targeted and it was at this time the genuine CQd became very rare and precious, being kept by a few private breeders or as pets in Chongqing City. The Conservation Center and CCDC Chongqing Dog Club disappeared after the CKU recognised the TRUE CHONGQING DOG and made newer, relevant Breed Standard which their hybrid dogs did not meet. Many dog/puppy mill brookers lost their jobs. Breeders of CQd around the world started to understand the difference between the Chongqing Dog andChuandong Hound, and these breeders began asking for CKU ( FCI ) recognition . CKU has officially started preservation of Chinese native breeds since October, 2016. The scheme has since covered activities including conferences and show competitions being held in a number of Chinese provinces where topics regarding historical development of native breeds and establishment of breed standard have been discussed with dog lovers. In addition, the promotion of a more scientific breeding record as adopted by FCI and promotion of dog shows are also in progress. The following breeds are those that have been widely promoted to registration and participation in dog shows – Chongqing Dog , Chuandong Hound , Xian Hound, Tang Gou and Laizhou Hong .
In mid 2017, the first hybrid Chongqing Dogs (made by Conservation Center) arrived in the USA. Shortly thereafter in October, 2017 during the CKU Speciality show in Chongqing City, CKU Officials took blood samples, pictures, videos and measurements which were used to produce two Breed Standards one for CQd and another one for Chuandong Hound. All changed in 2018 with CKU recognition and first CQ dog on national CKU ( FCI ) dog show in group11 . CKU Registrations was made available to owners outside of China. Detailed pictures, measurements and Blood samples are sent for each dog, these dogs will be recorded as the First generation registered with the CKU. Bamboo tail Kennel participated and we become part of the 重庆犬 History.
At WDS 2017 in Nederland CKU make other huge announcement : A large number of Chinese native dog breeds have been brought together in European countries, and the first European Chongqing Dog Show is being organized.The FCI 11th group to be opened at the CKU ( FCI ) CAC Dog Show marks the official stage of the Chinese native dog on the dog show. From domestic to foreign, from hobby to professional, this is an important step in the development of Chinese native dogs!
In 2018 our Kennel Bamboo tail become an official CKU member, we tested all of our dogs by DNA test and got CKU Pedigrees. Our Project started to become a reality. On 18 NOV 2018 Bamboo tail Kennel introduced for the first time ever on the 63rd International FCI dog show in Belgrade – the Chinese Chongqing Dog and history was made in Europe. Since DEC 2018 we participated as the first ever CQ dog kennel in many FCI National and International Dog Shows across Europe. 2019 was a huge success for Bamboo tail Kennel when our first ever two Grand Champions, four International Champions, 3 national Champions, Multi Champions, first JCH born at our Kennel, many BOB and CAC … waoo! We were now showing our dogs under FCI in Group 11 across Europe … Never has anyone done this before with CQ dogs in Europe.
We flew to Chongqing City to the CKU dog show with primogenitor MangZi, the first ever International Champion and Grand Champion, first European Kennel in a Chinese CKU DoG Show …! Yes we did it !
What a success story by Bamboo tail Kennel . The biggest event for the Chongqing Dog was in Shanghai on WDS from 1st – 3rd May 2019, the Chongqing Dog was introduced to the World right across the Globe …and from this day on the success of the Chongqing Dog was unstoppable . Since the middle of 2019 more and more National European FCI countries recognised the CQ dog in G11. Late July 2019 my wife and I did DNA genetic ancestry ,and we found out where in the world our DNA came from , mine was from ancient Rome and my wife that of Celtic Origin .
I decided to test my dogs and the result was amazing most of my Chongqing dog was HAPLOGROUP A2a, HAPLOTYPE Hc.12 and some HAPLOGROUP A5 , HAPLOTYPE A201 , no kennel ever before published DNA of the Chongqing Dog.
So, I had proven it! The breed was absolutely ancient and my selection was superior from the first day . The ‘Unsolved’ Mystery was solved by Bamboo tail Kennel – That’s it, I won!
Today the modern CQd ( 重庆犬 ) had as a typical Sichuan valley farm breed a wide field of application, serves three primary functions beingguard, companion and show dog, although many individuals perform both tasks. Currently in China, only people in rural communities still keep the true type, those few individuals living outside of China are virtually all kept as companion animals, especially by those interested in rare pets. As interest in dog shows and pet dogs grows throughout China, the Chinese Chongqing Dog will probably become primarily a companion animal and a show dog, which is where the breed’s future most likely lies. There is minimal information about the #chongqingdog online or in books, #bambootailkennel hopes to change that soon, we are now working on a Book and eBook project …
Middle of 2019 Revodana Publishing LLC from New York and Bamboo tail KENNEL agree to publish the Book “The Chongqing Dog” together . The rest is history.
In 2020 Chongqing dog is no longer at risk of going extinct.