China is well-known for pandas, dragons and silkworms. But did you know China is also home to some of the most eclectic dog breeds? Big, small, fluffy or hairless, there is certainly a dog breed in China that appeals to you and suits your preferences. CQ dogs are very rare even in their native land and most people outside of the Sichuan Province and Chongqing City have never seen nor heard of a Chongqing Dog – 重庆犬 . There is no mistaking them. The Chongqing Dog is very elegant, beautiful, impressive with its own exotic look and velvety, pleasant to the touch appearance. His tail is his most special feature , known as a “Bamboo tail”, it stands completely straight, it is thick at the base and sharp at the end This ancient relic is located in an isolated mountainous area; this relative isolation from the outside world makes the #chongqingdog a breed rarely affected by the outside world. It stands alone,independent maintaining a high genetic purity in its lineage .CQd is a common example of what transpires when a dog breed becomes isolated .The Chongqing Dog in long-term natural breeding selection and elimination has gradually formed a unique appearance and personality with outstanding attributes in character and temperament.
In the near future this breed will be a matter of prestige for their nation and the theme for lots of discussions and debates.
Historical evidence has pointed out that it was in the Middle Kingdom that domestication of dogs was first initiated. This can be traced as far back as 15000 years ago, where scientists have identified maximum genetic variation. There was also a time in Chinese history when certain canine species were patronized by the rich and the elite… since the mid-20th century, Chongqing Dogs saw a steady decline in the number of as well as a decline in dog breeding to the original true-type the Molosser type. . Unlike the days of yesteryear, people in China have grown to love dogs. Now it’s common for a Chinese family to have a pet dog, despite stringent government regulations. In historical Chongqing City, the dogs were owned mainly by prestigious officials, other “well to do” locals or rich farmers. The Chongqing Dog has one of the most unique appearances of any dog breed and is completely unmistakable to those familiar with this animal. The origin of this breed is in the Chongqing City area which belongs to the eastern part of the Sichuan Province. This valley is located in the Mountain area of southwest China, which is very isolated and secluded from the rest of modern China being a huge valley with two megacities –Chongqing and Chengdu [Population of 15,709,700 + 30,484,300 ] ,birth and home of rare Panda bears and Chongqing Dogs .
Because of no influence from the outside world, this breed formed its unique appearance and temperament over a long term of natural evolution and selection and that genetic purity allows this breed to stand triumphantly alone. The Chongqing dog’s face, like his bulldog cousins, has wrinkles. He is the epitome of a medium-sized molosser dog, males usually stand between 40-45 cm (15 to 18 inches)tall at the shoulder and weigh between 16-19 kg (35-42 pounds). The noticeably smaller females usually stand between 35 and 40 cm (13 to 16 inches) tall at the shoulder and weigh between 14 and 15 kg (30 to 33 pounds) . It’s is a very squarely proportioned breed although some individuals, especially females, are slightly longer from withers to rump than they are a bit taller at the shoulder. In general, this breed is quite stocky and compact, but not to a great extreme. The CQ dog is a very muscular breed, whose athleticism and tone is clearly visible beneath its short coat. The coat of Chongqing Dog in the north is thicker than that of the south, which is a natural phenomenon. Chongqing dog coat is very unique, similar to the Shar Pei ( horse coat) only the back swath is less coated or bold.
The North of East Sichuan Chongqing dog fur is thick and dense, in the Southern Province and mostly in City of Chongqing – it’s very common to come upon the mysterious, rare type of Chongqing dog, these dogs have a coat which changes regularly in summer and winter time, it’s a natural phenomenon and huge unsolved mystery . The coat is short, flat, not dense, and very harsh to the touch.
The more common coat type can become so sparse in the summer it can appear hairless only to regrow a winter coat. This adaption is likely due to the extreme seasonal weather in and around Chongqing City. Regardless of the season, this coat type will have a swath of near hairlessness running sometimes from the top of the head to the tip of the tail and typically a 7-10 cm swath of near hairlessness running down the back from the withers to the hips.
Although sparse, this coat type is coarse and prickly to the touch. The people of China familiar with this type coat referring to it as the “Buffalo type” coat, referring to water buffalo. One Chinese breeder described it as “The buffalo hide is dark, and the pelts are bamboo shells like silk, with only scattered short hairs on the back of the ears and sides of the body”. This coat typically appears after the first or second molt at 6 months to a year of age.
The rarest and most sought after coat type is one that appears hairless at any distance except very close-up. The body is evenly covered in what can only be described as vellus type hair, very short, velvety soft hair like that on the muzzle nearest the nose of a newborn calf. One Chinese breeder described it beautifully as “like the back of a new leaf”.
Still other Chongqings have a full coat without sparseness likely due by hybrid breeding to the Sichuan Hunting hound or other village dogs somewhere back in it’s lineage. Dogs being slightly less hairy is preferred , more valuable and more wanted on Chinese dog market. Ideally, the coat should be always extremely short and visibly glossy.
#Sichuan valley and Chongqing City belongs to a sub-tropical monsoon climate. The features are warm winter, hot summer, early spring and short autumn. Annual average temperature is around 20 C (68 Fahrenheit) . The average lowest temperature is 6-8 C (42-46 Fahrenheit) in winter. The average highest temperature is 27-34 C (80-93 Fahrenheit) in summer and the extreme temperature can reach as high as 44 C (111 Fahrenheit).
This breed does have somewhat loose skin, but not to the extent where it diminishes the muscular appearance.When this breed is alert, extra rolls of skin show up on the back of the neck. This is even more noticeable in puppies. During puppy age , they have lots of wrinkles and as they get older, they have fewer wrinkles.
The tail of the Chongqing Dog is perhaps the breed’s most unique feature. These dogs possess what is known as a #bambootail . This tail is naturally short to medium in length and set high on the dog’s body. A short tail is more preferred. When the dog is in motion, the tail is usually carried slightly upright at approximately a 45 degree angle from the back. A tail that is raised and forms a 45 – 90 degree angle is a trademark of this breed. The tail is incredibly thick at the base but tapers to a very sharp point at the end. Perhaps most interestingly, the tail of the CQ dog should be completely hairless. The tail is usually carried completely straight, hairless without any curve.
This dog’s head is outstanding as well.
The skull is flat on top and possesses well-pronounced cheek muscles, making it look like the dog has a square head. The muzzle is quite distinct from the rest of the head and connects to it quite abruptly with a well defined stop.
The muzzle itself is quite short, but very broad and deep, giving a square profile and the cheekbones are well pronounced.This gives it a squarish appearance. The top lips of this breed completely cover the lower lips but should always be tight fitting. The mouth is another key breed feature. Like the Chow Chow and Shar Pei, the mouth and tongue of the Chinese Chongqing Dog are primarily blue-black in color, it should have bluish black spots or patches .The surface of the tongue should preferably be solid blue or black but such is a rarity at this time. The blue-black tongue is one of the breed’s most well known physical characteristics. It’s also the most misunderstood.
We do know that the CQd is not the only breed with a blue-black tongue. The Chinese Shar Pei , Chow Chow and Thai Ridgeback shares this trait as well. A few other animals have black tongues, too: the giraffe, polar bear, and several breeds of cattle Spots on tongues are simply deposits of extra pigment, like birthmarks and freckles on people. Dogs often have spots of dark pigment on their skin, too, hiding under their coats. These spots can be large or small, many or few. If a CQd tongue has a pink spot on it, does that mean it’s not purebred? No !
CQd puppies’ tongues are pink at birth. They darken to blue-black by 8-10 weeks of age. Some tongues don’t cover completely and they may have small spots or splashes of pink.
According to Chinese legend, the tongue got its blue hue at the time of creation, when a CQd licked up drops of the color as the sky was being painted.
The nose of the CQ dog should be large, black with open nares and slightly higher than the rest of the muzzle. The Chongqing Dog’s dog face is covered in wrinkles. These wrinkles should not be excessive like those of the Shar Pei or
Pug and never a hindrance to it’s sight and are usually comparable to pet-quality #Old English Bulldog . The eyes should be dark brown in color and neither sunken or bulging. The ears of this breed are another key characteristic. They must be small-in-size, triangular-in-shape, face directly forwards, strongly erect, and either completely hairless or nearly so. His ears are erect and stress how alert he is. The overall expression of most Chongqing Dogs is intense, wise, and somewhat primitive. The ears and tail are usually completely hairless, and sometimes the muzzle, face, neck, chest, and belly are as well. The back of this breed also typically has less hair than the rest of the body. The Chongqing Dog should be solidly colored, ideally red, reddish or black. The new CKU Breed Standard states the following will disqualify a dog for show purposes… black with red or copper coloring (Buffalo) with red, a pattern of black with red and/or mahogany and tan markings is a disqualifying pattern or any other color or pattern other than red (an variations thereof) or solid black. Especially white markings on the chest or any other part of the body are pet quality and sign of cross breeding .The black skin of this breed is often clearly visible, making some dogs look as though they have black muzzles, faces, chests, tails, backs, and ears.
The breed has a very relaxed temperament, but can be very protective of its owners and wary around strangers. However, if the owner is present, they’ll quickly warm up to anyone. CQ dog originated in the mountains of eastern Sichuan, Linshui (commonly known as the “three mountains two slots”). The Chongqing Dog has ancient roots and is considered a natural breed . The whole Sichuan valley area is very isolated because of the non existence of roads , therefore cross breeding with other Chinese breeds, using human intervention, was very difficult. There have been a few minor developmental differences in these dogs as they evolved in different areas of the Sichuan valley. As a result the CQd has remained unchanged for centuries. What we know today from preliminary DNA findings the origin of the CQd are ancestors of the Tibet Mastiff, Chow Chow, Shar Pei and Chuandong Hound originating from the wild dingo, wherein descendents of this primitive Dingo still exist in areas of China today. ezisrenetically the Chuandong Hound is more related to the Thai Ridgeback then the CQd.
A long history in the making for the Chongqing Dog made the breed into a living fossil. Chongqing City and its surrounding area has a dog that is not just a status symbol, it is equivalent to have a living antique.
…and It is even rare in China.